Department of Physics, Unit Catalogue 2011/12 

Credits:  6 
Level:  Masters UG & PG (FHEQ level 7) 
Period:  Semester 2 
Assessment:  EX 100% 
Supplementary Assessment:  Likeforlike reassessment (where allowed by programme regulations) 
Requisites:  Before taking this unit you must (take PH20017 or take PH20063) and take PH30030 and take PH30077 
Description:  Aims: The aim of this unit is to develop students' understanding of the fundamental physics underlying both linear and nonlinear interactions of light with matter. A further aim is to describe how these interactions may be manipulated and enhanced by means of periodically patterned and microstructured optical waveguides. Learning Outcomes: After taking this unit the student should be able to: * discuss the properties of waveguide modes as solutions to the scalar wave equation; * describe in detail the properties of coupled waveguides and waveguide transitions; * explain the physical origins and implications of loss and dispersion in practical waveguides; * describe the unique properties of photonic crystal fibres; * give a detailed explanation of the basic properties of photonic bandgaps and defects in 2 D and 3 D photonic crystals; * demonstrate an indepth understanding of the quantum mechanical origin of optical nonlinearities; * discuss the meaning and applications of the phase matching conditions in frequency conversion; * outline nonlinear effects in optical fibres. Skills: Numeracy T/F A, Problem Solving T/F A. Content: Optical waveguides (6 hours): Waveguide modes; scalar wave equation, mode excitation and propagation, transitions, chromatic dispersion. Coupled modes; directional coupling, supermodes, phasematching, leakage and bending loss. Transmission and reflection characteristics of periodic optical waveguides. Photonic crystals (5 hours): Photonic crystal fibres; Index guiding fibres, endlessly single mode fibres, solid and hollowcore photonic bandgap fibres. Onedimensional photonic crystals. Two and threedimensional photonic crystals; Bloch theorem, photonic band gap, photonic crystal band structure, defects in photonic crystals. Nonlinear optics (11 hours): Twolevel atom in an electromagnetic field; linear and nonlinear susceptibilities, saturation effects; Rabi oscillations; MaxwellBloch equations; laser, optical bistability. Nonlinear refractive index; focusing and defocusing nonlinearities. Nonlinear beam propagation, filamentation, Lorentz oscillator model and nonlinear wave mixing. Second harmonic generation; parametric frequency conversion, phasematching. Nonlinear optics in fibres; group velocity dispersion, nonlinear Schrödinger equation, fourwave mixing, polarisation dependent nonlinear effects in fibers, Raman and Brillouin effects, self and crossphase modulations. Short pulses and solitons in optical fibers, intrapulse Raman scattering. Cherenkov radiation and optical supercontinuum. Nonlinear optics in coupled waveguides and Bragg gratings. 
Programme availability: 
PH40086 is Compulsory on the following programmes:Department of Physics
PH40086 is Optional on the following programmes:Programmes in Natural Sciences
