Look At Their Faces. Learn Their Names. Never Forget Them!

Anne Frank didn’t die in one of the Zyklon B gas chambers. She died from typhus contracted from the unsanitary conditions in Bergen-Belsen, the concentration camp she was interned in waiting for execution. She contracted typhus in that camp because her father’s attempt to get a refugee visa for the Franks to come to safety in the US was denied. The reason we have the immigration rules we have now, no matter how in need of updating and revision they are (like too much else in the US), is because of how the Franks, the refugees on The St. Louis, and others trying to flee NAZI tyranny and the Holocaust were treated in the run up to and during World War II. The stories brought back by American Soldiers of what they’d seen in the liberation of the camps and the historical documents found, utilized, and archived by both Civil Affairs personnel and US civilian personnel for the Nuremberg Trials shamed the US into making the changes. It are these changes, changes to prevent the US from ever again being a passive party to the death and destruction of tyranny, state terror, and genocide, that the President, Stephen Miller, former AG Sessions, Senator Cotton, Congressman King, the President’s base of supporters, the base of the GOP and the conservative movement now seek to overturn in an attempt to return to the Immigration Act of 1924.

The children that are dying in the concentration camps that the Trump administration have established on or near the southern border are dying from disease contracted from unsanitary conditions or worsened by them. And they are in those camps because instead of processing their initial asylum requests and releasing them along with their parent or parents, they are being separated and detained in the hope that news of this will somehow get to desperate people in villages in Central American and that will deter them from trying to seek asylum in the US.

Here are the faces and the names of the children who have died in US custody or because they were in US custody* so far.

Here is the Google Docs document that has been created to record these crimes against humanity.

We will need a Truth & Reconciliation Committee to come through this. And it will not only need to have the authority to refer prosecutions, the legislation establishing the Truth & Reconciliation Committee will need to include language establishing a crimes against humanity tribunal for the people who conceived of this policy and strategy, who ordered it, who carried it out, and who have tried to cover it up.

Look at their faces! Learn their names! Never forget them and what is being done to others like them in the name of the United States.

Open thread!

* US personnel have, apparently, been transferring seriously ill detainees from custody to hospitals so that they technically do not die in one of these camps or other Customs & Border Patrol or Health & Human Services Office of Refugee Resettlement facilities.






72 replies
  1. 1

    The counter has gone up to 9 now. I believe. One girl died of thirst in the desert and they found two more bodies this morning of children.

    There have been adult deaths too, close to twenty since T took office.

    *24 according to NBC.

  2. 2
    Gex says:

    I think the killing is the point. How is word supposed to get back to their countries of origin if they are also working very hard to not let anyone know what conditions are like?

    ETA: That and the profit.

  3. 3
    trollhattan says:

    We will need a Truth & Reconciliation Committee to come through this. And it will not only need to have the authority to refer prosecutions, the legislation establishing the Truth & Reconciliation Committee will need to include language establishing a crimes against humanity tribunal for the people who conceived of this policy and strategy, who ordered it, who carried it out, and who have tried to cover it up.

    What you said.

  4. 4
    Jeffro says:

    @trollhattan: if the last part is a long way to say “modern-day Nuremberg Trials”, sign me up.

    Time for a general strike, march on Washington, march on these concentration camps, anything. I know it’s America and we all have Summer Brain until Labor Day, but come on Dems. Call for it. Let’s go

  5. 5
    Gretchen says:

    Didn’t the Germans tell the people going into the gas chambers that it was a shower or for delousing?

  6. 6

    People on hunger strike are being force fed. ICE and CBP abuse tracker

  7. 7
    hells littlest angel says:

    White Americans have been murdering other-skinned peoples from the moment we stepped onto this country’s shores. I want to believe that in this case justice will be done, but that would be unprecedented. I think a Warren-Harris administration would really try to do the right thing, but I would expect them to be thwarted by The Deep White State.

  8. 8
    Adam L Silverman says:

    @schrodingers_cat: There is a difference between those who die during the crossing and those who die in US custody. They are equally preventable. They are equally unacceptable. But they are not the same thing.

  9. 9
    TenguPhule says:

    The stories brought back by American Soldiers of what they’d seen in the liberation of the camps and the historical documents found, utilized, and archived by both Civil Affairs personnel and US civilian personnel for the Nuremberg Trials shamed the US into making the changes.

    Today those same stories give white republicans really big stiffies. Shame is for other people made into human pyramids.

    Yes, I’m bitter.

  10. 10
    Adam L Silverman says:

    @Gretchen: Yes. Yes they did.

  11. 11
    Bullet-headed saxon mother's son says:

    Republicans are found (nay, gleeful) of saying the there must be some punishment for illegal entry. OK, apparently the punishment is torture and death. Remind us all again — what is the crime that these children committed?

  12. 12
    TenguPhule says:

    @Gex:

    How is word supposed to get back to their countries of origin if they are also working very hard to not let anyone know what conditions are like?

    The same way it always does.

  13. 13
    TenguPhule says:

    are dying from disease contracted from unsanitary conditions or worsened by them.

    Which makes their defense of the denial of soap and toothpaste all the more horrible. They’re turning the concentration camps into death camps the worst way possible, via neglect.

    And I’m certain they’re betting on escaping the consequences by using “it wasn’t my responsibility” as the excuse. A perfect circle of finger pointing sufficient to make conviction under the current courts unlikely.

  14. 14
    Kent says:

    As Americans we used to make heroes of, and create Academy Award-winning musicals about families who illegally crossed borders on foot to request asylum. In fact, I’d venture to guess that everyone here knows these lyrics: https://youtu.be/AeOMwXeMYwE

    What has changed today? I just can’t put my finger on it.

  15. 15
    Brachiator says:

    Thanks for this post.

    Trump is trying to use hard ball tactics to scare people from even attempting to enter the country.

    Worse, as president, he is encouraging people to be cruel and callous. I hear people say that the terrible conditions and mistreatment are the fault of immigrants. If they would just stay in their own country, none of this would be necessary. It also says much that the GOP leadership almost universally backs Trump on this. Have any conservative pundits condemned Trump?

    There is something wrong with Trump. He lacks any moral core. He understands hurt and resentment applied to himself, and his family, but he has no consideration for the Other. That he is incapable of admitting fault or apologizing is an odd emotional emptiness. The result is that he encourages the worst in the people who work for him and in his supporters. He may be one of the most recent incarnations of the banality of evil.

    Sadly, this means that we will see more horror from Trump.

    I am skeptical that a Truth and Reconciliation commission would ever be possible. Too many Americans are convinced that we are the most moral nation that ever existed, and that we can never do wrong because our hearts are always in the right place. Even if we fail, we will do better next time.

  16. 16
    Ella in New Mexico says:

    Getting the faces and stories of these and all the children in US Custody needs to be a top priority. We need this movement to be so loud and so ubiquitous that it penetrates even the Fox News Iron Dome. So they know what Trump has really done. No euphemisms like “family separation”, no lies he’s keeping the families together, no pretending this is because “The Democrats” won’t fund this or that.”

    Just unequivocal evidence that Trump and the Republicans are committing human rights crimes. Because I really believe a majority of his supporters have been so poorly informed they have no idea how horrible this is. Or cant believe it could be true.

    And call me crazy but I still have hope a chunk of them will be disgusted and angry and reject him and finally give up on this regime.

    Seeing as so many of these detention centers are in Texas and nearby southwestern states, this would be the perfect job for Beto O’Rourke to use to quit hiss stupid Presidential campaign and use his strengths again, and get some more developmental time in the trenches, per my post down below.

  17. 17
    Renie says:

    NY Times had a good editorial today on this issue. NYT editorial Politicians are wasting energy on what term to use to call these camps rather than doing anything about the conditions. I hope there are some consequences for someone for this but I doubt there will be

  18. 18
    TenguPhule says:

    We will need a Truth & Reconciliation Committee to come through this. And it will not only need to have the authority to refer prosecutions, the legislation establishing the Truth & Reconciliation Committee will need to include language establishing a crimes against humanity tribunal for the people who conceived of this policy and strategy, who ordered it, who carried it out, and who have tried to cover it up.

    And of course none of that is going to happen as long as Republicans in Congress draw breath. They will fight this using every rule and procedure in the House and Senate they willfully ignored before and I am cynical enough to doubt how much political capital our elected representatives are willing to spend on this given all the other 101 emergencies that also demand their attention.

    The courts ruled on Trump’s child abductions last year.

    And yet here we are, with things increasingly getting worse.

  19. 19
    TenguPhule says:

    @Ella in New Mexico:

    Just unequivocal evidence that Trump and the Republicans are committing human rights crimes. Because I really believe a majority of his supporters have been so poorly informed they have no idea how horrible this is. Or cant believe it could be true.

    I’m sorry to have to tell you this.

    Most of them don’t care. The rest think its great.

  20. 20
    waspuppet says:

    @Brachiator: I’ve seen this kind of sociopathy for decades. It predates Trump, or at least his entry into politics. I went to school with so many proto-Stephen Millers who had so many clever ideas. Most of them grew out of it by turning the ripe, mature age of 16, but …

    Ann Frank didn’t die in one of the Zyklon B gas chambers.

    Anne.

  21. 21
    TenguPhule says:

    @Brachiator:

    There is something wrong with Trump. He lacks any moral core.

    Worse, his is inverted. Like his genitals.

  22. 22
    Ella in New Mexico says:

    @TenguPhule: we don’t need all of them…maybe just 20% of them, dropping his approvals down to the solid low 30’s.

  23. 23
    Jay says:

    Thank you, Adam.

  24. 24
    debbie says:

    Someone needs to get face to face with Trump, Pence, and Miller and ask about Anne Frank and whether they think those unsanitary conditions were acceptable. Also that bitch attorney.

    A very powerful post, Adam.

  25. 25
    Ohio Mom says:

    This makes me sick to my stomach.

    On a related note, I see there is an Ohio Lights for Liberty Virgil planned for Friday, July 12 at the Morris County jail from 8-11pm. It’s in Mt. Gilead, which is an hour away from Columbus

    I get that this site was chosen because it is an ICE detention facility. But there are a lot of logistical issues with me getting there, it’s three hours away for starters.

    I’m not going to be the only one who can’t get there. I hope additional virgils in more accessible locations are added.

  26. 26
    debbie says:

    The noted germophobe should also be asked how he’d fare in those circumstances.

  27. 27
    Brachiator says:

    @Kent:

    As Americans we used to make heroes of, and create Academy Award-winning musicals about families who illegally crossed borders on foot to request asylum.

    The Grapes of Wrath was inspired in part on how cruel we were to our fellow citizens in need. In this case, it was poor Okies during the Depression.

    Even with the assistance of the Federal Government, Californians feared the additional expenses for welfare relief and public education. As a result, Los Angeles “declared war” on these many emigrants by implementing the “Bum Blockade” in February, 1936.

    Usurping California’s state powers, Police Chief James E. “Two-Gun” Davis, with the support of the Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce, many public officials, the railroads, and hard-pressed state relief agencies, dispatched 136 police officers to 16 major points of entry on the Arizona, Nevada and Oregon, with orders to turn back migrants with “no visible means of support.”

    https://www.okhistory.org/publications/enc/entry.php?entry=OK008

  28. 28
    japa21 says:

    @Ohio Mom: @Ohio Mom: Just found out there is one in Crystal Lake, IL. Don’t know of a detention center there, although there is one in Woodstock, not too far away. When I had last checked there had not been too many, but there are a lot now.

    https://www.lightsforliberty.org/

  29. 29
    eemom says:

    Hope there’s a God, if only to bless you for this post.

  30. 30
    Aleta says:

    For those who don’t want, or don’t like to sign in to, a google account, this is the full thread with the children’s photos from
    Alvaro Bedoya @alvarombedoya, who will continue to post whenever deaths of children are made public. (We are not being told at the time.)

  31. 31
    Mike in NC says:

    It appears that the media just don’t care about these people being treated like dirt by the Trumpers. They’re juiced right now at the prospect of Pompeo and Bolton goading Fat Bastard into bombing brown people in Iran.

  32. 32
    debbie says:

    @Aleta:

    Thank you. Posted to FB.

  33. 33
    Aleta says:

    Fo those who haven’t seen these articles yet: 1/2

    1–From June 22, by By Isaac Chotiner in NYer . A Q. & A. with a lawyer on a team who visited a building in Clint, Texas last week to interview children and young mothers. (They were able to do that “in order to monitor government compliance with the Flores settlement.”)

    A few pieces from it:

    How many kids are at the facility right now, and do you have some sense of a breakdown of where they’re from?
    When we arrived, on Monday, there were approximately three hundred and fifty children there. They were constantly receiving children, and they’re constantly picking up children and transferring them over to an O.R.R. [Office of Refugee Resettlement] site. So the number is fluid.

    We were so shocked by the number of children who were there, because it’s a facility that only has capacity for a hundred and four. And we were told that they had recently expanded the facility, but they did not give us a tour of it, and we legally don’t have the right to tour the facility.

    We drove around afterward, and we discovered that there was a giant warehouse that they had put on the site. And it appears that that one warehouse has allegedly increased their capacity by an additional five hundred kids.

    When we talked to Border Patrol agents later that week, they confirmed that is the alleged expansion, and when we talked to children, one of the children described as many as three hundred children being in that room, in that warehouse, basically, at one point when he first arrived. There were no windows.

    And so what we did then was we looked at the ages of the children, and we were shocked by just how many young children there were. There were over a hundred young children when we first arrived. And there were child-mothers who were also there, and so we started to pull the child-mothers and their babies, we started to make sure their needs were being met. We started to pull the youngest children to see who was taking care of them.

    And then we started to pull the children who had been there the longest to find out just how long children are being kept there.
    (description)

    They told us that they were hungry. They told us that some of them had not showered or had not showered until the day or two days before we arrived. Many of them described that they only brushed their teeth once. This facility knew last week that we were coming. The government knew three weeks ago that we were coming.

    The guards are asking the younger children or the older children, “Who wants to take care of this little boy? Who wants to take of this little girl?” and they’ll bring in a two-year-old, a three-year-old, a four-year-old. And then the littlest kids are expected to be taken care of by the older kids, but then some of the oldest children lose interest in it, and little children get handed off to other children. And sometimes we hear about the littlest children being alone by themselves on the floor.

    Many of the children reported sleeping on the concrete floor. They are being given army blankets, those wool-type blankets that are really harsh. Most of the children said they’re being given two blankets, one to put beneath them on the floor. Some of the children are describing just being given one blanket and having to decide whether to put it under them or over them, because there is air-conditioning at this facility. And so they’re having to make a choice about, Do I try to protect myself from the cement, or do I try to keep warm?

    We weren’t originally planning to be there on Thursday, but one of the reasons why we came back for a fourth day is that some of the children, on Wednesday, told us that there was a lice infestation, as well as an influenza outbreak, at that facility, and so a number of the children are being taken into isolation rooms, quarantine areas where there’s nobody with them except for other sick children.

    There was one child-mother who took her baby in there, because the baby got the flu. And then the mother, because she was in there caring for the child, got the flu as well. And so then she was there for a week, and they took the baby out and gave the baby to an unrelated child to try to take care of the child-mother’s baby. Sorry, I was trying to remember where I was going with that.

    Oh, I know what I wanted to tell you. This is important. So, on Wednesday, we received reports from children of a lice outbreak in one of the cells where there were about twenty-five children, and what they told us is that six of the children were found to have lice. And so they were given a lice shampoo, and the other children were given two combs and told to share those two combs, two lice combs, and brush their hair with the same combs, which is something you never do with a lice outbreak.

    And then what happened was one of the combs was lost, and Border Patrol agents got so mad that they took away the children’s blankets and mats. They weren’t allowed to sleep on the beds, and they had to sleep on the floor on Wednesday night as punishment for losing the comb. So you had a whole cell full of kids who had beds and mats at one point, not for everybody but for most of them, who were forced to sleep on the cement.

    Almost every child that we interviewed had a parent or relative in the United States. Many of them had parents in the United States and were coming here to be with their parents. Some of the children that we interviewed had been separated from their parents. Most of them were separated from other adult relatives. Almost all the children came across with an adult family member and were separated from them by the Border Patrol. Some of them were separated from their parents themselves; other times it was a grandmother or aunt or an older sibling. We don’t know where the parents are being kept. They are primarily from Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras. There are a few from Ecuador, one from Peru.

    I’m not going to say that most of the guards care about the kids, because we didn’t talk to most of the guards, but I do believe in the inherent goodness of people.

    And when I’ve talked to guards, they seemed caring, and they had guards who, when the children were there for these very lengthy interviews, would bring the children lunches in the conference room. They’re terrible lunches.

    That’s how some of the guards are, but the fact is that some of the guards are bad people, and there’s no question about it.

  34. 34
    worn says:

    Thank you, thank you, thank you a million times for this, Adam!

  35. 35

    @Adam L Silverman:
    24 adults have died in immigration detention since the current Republican President took office.
    Also, people are crossing the border at points they didn’t use to before because CBP has closed many official ports of entry. So the official culpability in these deaths is not zero. Those deaths are close to 300 now.

  36. 36
    Aleta says:

    @Aleta: 2/2

    2–From June 21 at NYRB. By Andrea Pitzer, the journalist who wrote One Long Night: A Global History of Concentration Camps (2017).
    ‘Some Suburb of Hell’: America’s New Concentration Camp System

    3–June 22 at The Hill

    Immigration attorneys said four toddlers, all under the age of 3, were hospitalized last week after spending time at a U.S. Border Patrol facility in McAllen, Texas.

    Toby Gialluca, a Florida-based attorney, told HuffPost on Friday that the children, who have teenage parents or guardians, were coughing and vomiting and had fevers and diarrhea.

    One 2-year-old’s eyes reportedly rolled to the back of her head, according to Gialluca, and she was “completely unresponsive.”
    Their immediate condition is unknown.

    “It’s just a cold, fearful look that you should never see in a child of that age,” Gialluca said. “You look at them and you think, ‘What have you seen?’”

    The lawyers told the outlet that they forced the government to hospitalize the children and feared that the children would have not received medical attention had they not toured the facility.

    “It’s intentional disregard for the well-being of children,” Gialluca said. “The guards continue to dehumanize these people and treat them worse than we would treat animals.”

    4–On his twitter account, a journalist who was held captive by Somali pirates wrote: (paraphrase) “Somali pirates gave me soap and a toothbrush.”

  37. 37
    debbie says:

    @Aleta:

    Let’s also not forget the hundreds of children who have little prospect of being reunited with their families.

  38. 38
    Kent says:

    @Brachiator: Thanks for the history lesson. I knew something of the Okie and dust bowl history. I didn’t know the states of CA and OR sent police to the border to turn away migrants. I clicked through and read the whole article. Powerful stuff.

  39. 39
    Adam L Silverman says:

    @schrodingers_cat: I’m not denying that. Nor was I intending to ignore the adults who have died in US custody. I’m just clarifying that adults or children dying in US custody is not the same thing as adults or children dying trying to make it to the US. They are equally bad. They are both preventable.

  40. 40
    Steeplejack says:

    @Brachiator:

    I am skeptical that a Truth and Reconciliation commission would ever be possible. Too many Americans are convinced that we are the most moral nation that ever existed, and that we can never do wrong because our hearts are always in the right place. Even if we fail, we will do better next time.

    Repeated for truth.

  41. 41
    Aleta says:

    Last night the bodies of a young woman, two infants and a toddler were found in TX near the Rio Grande; suspected cause of death is dehydration.

    IIRC, Journalists have made public documents indicating that US administration is turning away people who are legally applying for asylum — exposing the admin and Republican lie that if children are harmed, “it’s their fault for trying to bring their children here illegally.”

  42. 42
    debbie says:

    Where are all the fucking pro-lifers?

  43. 43
    Adam L Silverman says:

    @Brachiator: @Steeplejack: This may well be, but it doesn’t mean you don’t make the effort.

  44. 44
    Vhh says:

    It is a only a matter of time before a wave of disease hits these camps. Enough kids are not vaccinated that the std children’s like measles, mumps, chicken pox, 6th disease etc could infect hundreds at once. And there is that old concentration camp standby, typhus, which is spred by the lice now infesting everyone (the one lice comb per two kids policy will really speed that up). The press and public should force disclosure of what is going on. And then we will see the family values of all those pious evangelicals for what they are.

  45. 45
    Adam L Silverman says:

    @debbie: They do not care about anyone other than themselves once someone is actually born.

  46. 46
    Adam L Silverman says:

    @Vhh: The only good news on this is that the vaccination rates in the countries these children and adults are coming from is much higher than in the US.

  47. 47
    Vhh says:

    I can’t wait to see whom Trump throws under the bus on this. Stefan Müller seems a good choice, and it goes well into the original German.

  48. 48
    Betty Cracker says:

    Thank you, Adam. I’ve wanted to post about this but keep ending up in the fetal position when I think about it.

  49. 49
    Vhh says:

    @Adam L Silverman: @Adam L Silverman: Doubt they are vaccinated against typhus. What I want is for disease to spread to the families`of the American Gestapo.

  50. 50
    Kent says:

    @Vhh: Luckily, vaccination rates in Central America are actually in many instances HIGHER than they are here in the US. Really. These are not ignorant people and they care about their children and they don’t have anti-vax idiocy to deal with: https://www.cato.org/blog/migrant-caravan-central-america-vaccination-rates

    EDIT…yes, I see Adam beat me too it.

  51. 51
    Adam L Silverman says:

    @Vhh: Most likely not. But my understanding is that their vaccination rate for chicken pox, measles, mumps, and rubella, whopping cough, polio, and the other standards we vaccinate children for is much, much higher than the US’s right now. For all the problems they’re countries have, anti-vaxers are not one of them. Yet.

  52. 52
    Adam L Silverman says:

    @Kent: My post. My rules.//

  53. 53
    debbie says:

    @Adam L Silverman:

    Adam, I really have to thank you for this post. The arguments I’ve been having with people around here over concentration camps have focused on fighting their insistence that it’s not a concentration camp if there aren’t gas chambers and crematoria. I wish I’d thought of your argument before seeing this.

  54. 54
    Adam L Silverman says:

    @debbie: The NAZIs established about 40,000 concentration camps. Not all of them were death camps or extermination camps, though some became, as the allies closed in, the site of mass killings of the inmates. I watched part of, and have the rest recorded to watch tonight or tomorrow, a documentary on the Smithsonian channel last night titled Adolf Island. It is about a NAZI SS camp, including a concentration camp, established on the British island of Alderny in the English Channel. As the Allies closed in, the NAZIs killed everyone they had imprisoned there before fleeing the site.

  55. 55
    Steeplejack says:

    @Adam L Silverman:

    I am not saying don’t make the effort. I am all in favor of a truth and retribution reconciliation commission. But I believe Brachiator is right about the smug complacency of the vast majority of Americans.

  56. 56
    debbie says:

    @Adam L Silverman:

    Yes, they were a thorough people. //

  57. 57
    Adam L Silverman says:

    @Steeplejack: I’m not arguing that point at all.

  58. 58
    Omnes Omnibus says:

    It also needs to be understood that these people are seeking asylum in the US. On a simple human lever, it doesn’t really matter; no one should be subject to this kind of treatment under any circumstances. Legally though, it make a huge difference. The US does not have an obligation to admit immigrants. (IMO immigration is a good thing and our country has benefited from it since its founding.) We, however, do have a legal obligation to admit refugees. This obligation comes from both treaties that have the force of law and laws passed by Congress and signed by presidents. When someone presents themselves at our border with a request for asylum, we have an obligation to hold a timely hearing to determine whether they do fit the definition of a refugee. The UNHCR thumbnails it as:

    A refugee is someone who has been forced to flee his or her country because of persecution, war or violence. A refugee has a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, political opinion or membership in a particular social group. Most likely, they cannot return home or are afraid to do so. War and ethnic, tribal and religious violence are leading causes of refugees fleeing their countries.

    We aren’t determining their status and admitting the bona fide refugees. Just my guess, but I think that 99.9% of the people showing up right now are bona fide refugees – why the fuck else would they put themselves and their children through this otherwise? We are just warehousing them in horrible conditions. Everyone who is involved with this who isn’t screaming for things to be done right is guilty of crimes against humanity and is violating US and international law. This administration is run by ghouls.

  59. 59
    Adam L Silverman says:

    @debbie:
    https://www.ushmm.org/research/publications/encyclopedia-camps-ghettos

    Auschwitz, Dachau, the Warsaw Ghetto… These are names that resonate with anyone who knows the story of the Holocaust. Most people are shocked, however, to learn just how many camps, ghettos, and other sites of detention, persecution, forced labor, and murder the Nazis and their allies ran: over 42,000. Likewise, few people know much about the conditions in those places, or how broad the range of prisoner experiences was.

    In order to fill this vast gap in our knowledge, the Museum and Indiana University Press are compiling and publishing an Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945. Specifically, the work aims to answer basic questions about as many individual sites as possible; to provide scholars with leads for additional research; and to memorialize the places where so many millions of people suffered and died.

    Work on this enormous project began in 1999; it involves a small team of editors, writers, and researchers at the Museum, plus hundreds of volunteers and scholars from all over the world. Three volumes have already appeared, and four more are in preparation. When it is complete, the Encyclopedia will be the most comprehensive and up-to-date guide to the Nazi camp system in existence.

    The Museum would like to thank the following donors, without whose support the Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos could not exist:

    The Helen Bader Foundation
    The Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany, Inc.
    The Stiftung Erinnerung, Verantwortung und Zukunft
    The Benjamin and Seema Pulier Charitable Foundation, Inc.
    Diane and Howard Wohl
    The Jewish Foundation for the Righteous

    DOWNLOAD VOLUMES I AND II FOR FREE
    Note that volumes I and II of the Encyclopedia are now available free, online, in their entirety. Download the PDFs.

    VOLUME I
    Early Camps, Youth Camps, and Concentration Camps and Subcamps under the SS-Business Administration Main Office (WVHA)

    Geoffrey P. Megargee, Editor
    Foreword by Elie Wiesel

    Volume I Contents (PDF)

    Volume I Places Index (PDF)

    This volume contains entries on 110 early camps, 23 main SS concentration camps (including Auschwitz, Buchenwald, and Dachau), 898 subcamps, 39 SS construction brigade camps, and three so-called youth protection camps. Introductory essays provide broader context, while citations and source narratives offer the basis for additional research.

    Volume I has received the 2009 National Jewish Book Award, the 2010 Judaica Reference Award (external link) from the Association of Jewish Libraries, and Library Journal’s Best of Reference 2009. It was also designated a Choice magazine 2010 Outstanding Academic Title.

    1,796 pp., 192 b&w illustrations, 23 maps
    Hardback (two individual books) 978-0-253-35328-3
    $295.00
    Volume I purchasing information (external link)

    VOLUME II
    Ghettos in German-Occupied Eastern Europe

    Geoffrey P. Megargee, General Editor
    Martin Dean, Volume Editor
    Introduction by Christopher R. Browning

    Volume II Contents (PDF)

    Volume II Places Index (PDF)

    This volume provides a comprehensive account of how the Nazis conducted the Holocaust throughout the scattered towns and villages of Poland and the Soviet Union. It covers more than 1,150 sites, including both open and closed ghettos. Regional essays outline the patterns of ghettoization in 19 German administrative regions. Each entry discusses key events in the history of the ghetto; living and working conditions; activities of the Jewish Councils; Jewish responses to persecution; demographic changes; and details of the ghetto’s liquidation. Personal testimonies help convey the character of each ghetto, while source citations provide a guide to additional information. Documentation of hundreds of smaller sites—previously unknown or overlooked in the historiography of the Holocaust—make this an indispensable reference work on the destroyed Jewish communities of Eastern Europe.

    2,096 pp., 192 b&w illus., 20 maps
    Cloth 978-0-253-35599-7
    $295.00
    Volume II purchasing information (external link)

    VOLUME III
    Camps and Ghettos under European Regimes Aligned with Nazi Germany

    Geoffrey P. Megargee, General Editor
    Joseph R. White, Volume Editor
    Mel Hecker, Contributing Editor

    Volume III Contents (PDF)

    Volume III Places Index (PDF)

    Germany was obviously central to the Holocaust, but it did not act alone. Volume III of the Encyclopedia describes over 700 sites in Bulgaria, Croatia, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, Norway, Romania, Serbia, and Slovakia, as well as in French and Italian colonies in Africa, and in Italian-occupied territories in Europe. These were the places where allies of Germany, satellite states, and collaborationist governments imprisoned, enslaved, tortured, and killed the people they and the Germans considered enemies: Jews, Roma and Sinti, political opponents, and colonial subjects, among others. Experts on and from the countries in question drew on records in 14 different languages, from a multitude of archives, in order to write the entries. Introductory essays on each of the countries provide background information on broader developments having to do with the various camp systems. This volume is the one single source for information on these sites, in any language.

    1,016 pp., 124 b&w illustrations, 22 maps
    Hardback 978-0-253-02373-5
    $150.00
    Volume III purchasing information (external link)

    “This magnificent collective effort, uniting the research and expertise of leading scholars from around the world, provides a fundamental new reference for the history of the Holocaust. Anyone who wishes to understand the variety of Jewish experience in the ghettos and the scale of the destruction of a whole European world must consult this encyclopedia.”

    —Timothy Snyder, author of Bloodlands

  60. 60
    J R in WV says:

    Storm is nearly here, will drop off line in moments. Loud!!!

    Wish us luck, all!!

    ETA: So half an hour later, I was able to post this msg, because the front is past, and we’re back on line… Sat link is so weather dependent…

  61. 61
    Kathleen says:

    Thank you so much for this passionate, eloquent post, Adam. I consider warm hearts and compassionate souls some of our most powerful weapons. You come to the fight well armed!

  62. 62
    Aleta says:

    Andrea Pitzer @andreapitzer


    Part of what happens in societies where these camps are able to take root–and part of why they tend to stay open and get worse–is that legislators and institutions that might intervene become paralyzed by a variety of factors. It’s a broad, systemic pattern unfolding right now.
    *
    The factors that allow camps to take root, usually years or decades in the making, likewise make them hard to close. By the time they’re open, it’s often not a question of reversing one or two decisions by tapping the brakes. It becomes a question of how you stop a runaway train.
    *
    * We live in a democracy, not an authoritarian state. The public actions that officials, organizations, & citizens can take are nearly unlimited. But I think many in leadership roles will be politically neutralized, or worse, complicit. Historically, that’s what usually happens.
    *
    Again, this is not to say in any way that nothing can be done. Instead, I’m saying it would be foolish to believe that this situation is going to resolve itself, or that a handful of modest measures will somehow take care of it.

    *

    Kelly Sheehan @MadameButtons 
Replying to @andreapitzer
    
What do you think can we do as citizens? Are there any historical examples of citizens successfully stopping the train before it’s too late?

    *

    Andrea Pitzer @andreapitzer


    I’m trying not to get too far out over my skis and to really think about what I say. I posted a thread from @alice__driver a couple days back that lists small, specific things people can do to help on the ground. I’m pondering past examples of bigger efforts and will report back.

    *

    Frida Ghitis @FridaGhitis
    

I refuse to believe that Americans, even those who would like to put a hard stop to all immigration and asylum-seeking, support the horrific treatment of human beings, especially children.


    Andrea Pitzer @andreapitzer

    
I agree! It’s never a majority that wants things like camps and abuses endemic to them. It’s a dedicated minority that pushes them, and a larger sector that believes the misrepresentations about detainees, doesn’t know how else to deal with the “threat,” & goes along.




  63. 63
    debbie says:

    @Adam L Silverman:

    Thanks. I see I have my summer reading project.

  64. 64
    TenguPhule says:

    @Ella in New Mexico: If 5% break away, I’ll be surprised. This late in the game, its too late to back out.

  65. 65
    Aleta says:

    @debbie: “fighting their insistence that it’s not a concentration camp if there aren’t gas chambers and crematoria”

    Another approach, which puts concentration camps into worldwide context, is in the NYRB article from Andrea Pitzer. Her 2017 book about the history of concentration camps goes into more detail than the NYRB article.

    Even with incomplete information about what’s happening along the border today and what the government plans for these camps, history points to some conclusions about their future.

    Mass detention without trial earned a new name and a specific identity at the end of the nineteenth century. The labels then adopted for the practice were “reconcentración” and “concentration camps”—places of forced relocation of civilians into detention on the basis of group identity.

    It’s an excellent article with a lot of history. I’ll put the link right below. And maybe some quotes from it in some other post since this one is over.

  66. 66
    Aleta says:

    @Aleta:
    Link to (June 21) NYRB, ‘Some Suburb of Hell’: America’s New Concentration Camp System by Andrea Pitzer. She’s the journalist who wrote the book One Long Night: A Global History of Concentration Camps (2017).
    https://www.nybooks.com/daily/2019/06/21/some-suburb-of-hell-americas-new-concentration-camp-system/

  67. 67
    J R in WV says:

    The illegality of these people is unbeliveable — they care nothing for morality, religion, the law of the land, nothing but naked power and the pursuit of money. They defy court orders defining how children are to be treated.

    I can’t really discuss this, it tears me up to much.

    Adam, thanks for the history lessons from Europe. As a young person growing up, I knew that horror could never happen here. Then the first break in that was when Bush and Cheney decided torture wasn’t verboten for the good guys, we were still going to be good guys even if we tortured suspects.

    Since then it’s been straight down whenever Republicans achieve any power over how ordinary things are to be done. They can twist the most normal process into a horror the likes of which we haven’t seen since Wounded Knee~!!~

    I gotta stop now, read wild fiction with real heroes and alien bad guys.

  68. 68
    debbie says:

    @Aleta:

    Thanks.

  69. 69
    laura says:

    Won’t somebody think of the private, for profit, prison industry? Soap, tooth brushes and paste, palatable food in sufficient amounts, medical care, clothing, bedding, education, recreation cut right into the bottom line.
    Any/every fucker who’s played a role in this deserves the same treatment that they’ve dished out. Texas summer sun in a tent or a windowless warehouse seems right proper and fitting.
    The blowback is going to be the death of us.

  70. 70
    Another Scott says:

    @Ohio Mom: There’s also one in Cleveland, but that’s even worse distance-wise, I assume.

    3 weeks is pretty short to organize something like this. Fingers crossed.

    Cheers,
    Scott.

  71. 71
    Brachiator says:

    @Omnes Omnibus:

    We, however, do have a legal obligation to admit refugees.

    You are absolutely correct. But Trump doesn’t care. He believes that he has an absolute right to determine who can enter this country, and that this should be limited to primarily white people with good resumes.

    Trump doesn’t know law or treaties or precedent, and doesn’t much care. I doubt whether Trump even believes that he has a duty to uphold the Constitution. His base doesn’t much care either, apart from the Second Amendment.

  72. 72
    EWM says:

    Nazi Germany was a representative democracy. Almost all of the “refugees” are coming from a representative democracy. When are democracy lovers ever going to learn?

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